Department of History, Philosophy, Religion, and Social Sciences

Choate Rosemary Hall

Wallingford, Connecticut

History 310


Mr. Ned Gallagher

Hypertext Course Syllabus, Part I

Fall 2007 and Winter 2007–2008 terms

Texts and Course Materials
Program and Workload
Schedule of Meetings and Assignments

Contact Information
Memorial House #114, 697-2340
Johnson Athletic Center #105, 697-2418
preferred e-mail:

[Three Flags]
Jasper Johns, "Three Flags" (1938)

"Each age will re-write the history of the past anew . . ."
- Frederick Jackson Turner

Reading Materials

   These texts for the course—available at the school bookstore—should be purchased by all students immediately:

Program and Workload

     This course will be orthodox in its presentation: in general, you'll read something before each class meeting, and in class we'll discuss what you've read—what I call "Socratic discussion." You'll be expected to write short yet demanding papers, take regular period tests and departmental final examinations, and participate regularly in class. Brief reading quizzes will be frequent.

     Every effort has been made to keep the length of daily assignments manageable. Many worthwhile assignments were abbreviated or scrapped from the syllabus altogether. It's important, therefore, that you commit yourself now to keeping up with what is included among the assignments below; you'll be expected to complete the assigned homework before each class.

     What follows is what we'll try to cover during the term. It may be adjusted from time to time for any number of reasons. The homework for the next class is always the next assignment unless you are told differently. You'll find each entry on the schedule below contains some instructive questions and ideas you should consider in preparing for class; get into the habit reading the syllabus carefully each night as you begin your homework.

Schedule of Meetings and Assignments

1. Course Organization.

No assignment. We'll spend the time in this class getting to know one another.

2. Habits of Excellence: Study Skills and The Empirical Essay .

Please prepare the following for class #3: (a) read the Course Expectations document and memorize the definitions (e.g., political history) given and the course credos; (b) study The Pink Sheet and The Green Sheet very carefully, and skim The Gold Sheet so you are familiar with its contests and can refer to it later; (c) study the "Statement On Academic Integrity" in the Student Handbook; (d) prepare for a quiz on (a) through (c) that will ask you to think about things; and finally, (e) if you don't already own one, buy a paperback dictionary of no fewer than 600 pages and an 8.5"x11" three-ring loose-leaf binder with a section for use only in history and bring both to class.

U.S. HISTORY, PART I: "The Emergence Of A Federal Republic"

The goals of the first part of this course are essentially fourfold: (1) to refine the skills essential to the study of history; (2) to acquire broadly-based survey knowledge of the history of the Republic from its colonial beginnings through the end of Reconstruction; (3) to explore in some depth a thematic understanding of U.S. history in this period as the emergence of a federal republic; and (4) to learn about the work of the historian and the principles of historiography.

3. Terra Nova: Northern Colonies I.

Read Nash, pp. 61–71. Who were the Puritans? How were they different from the Separatist "Pilgrims" who founded Plymouth Colony? Of what significance is the Mayflower Compact? How did the Massachusetts Bay Colony establish political institutions independent of England? Remembering that all of Europe was ruled by despotic kings at the time, what precursors of American freedom and democracy do you see in the colonies in these 17th-century events? This is the first chapter in which you'll see so much data on related but different items. But here, your notes really have to work to make sense out of the material. The best way is to do them in the form of a matrix chart. Down the side: general headings, according to your judgment. Along the top: some form of who, what, where, and when, then why, how, and so what?

4. Terra Nova: Middle and Southern Colonies I.

Read Nash, pp. 71–79. Were there human, geographic, and institutional differences between the northern, middle, and southern colonies from the beginning? If so, do you think these differences still exist? Since many of these colonies were founded by a "company," is it correct to think of the early settlers as "employees"? How did the Dutch settlements differ from those of the English? How did Pennsylvania's origins shape its history? Distinguish the French and Spanish approaches to their New World colonies from the experience of British and Dutch settlers.

5. Terra Nova: Northern Colonies II.

Read Nash, pp. 81–87 and 92–98 and excerpt from John Locke's Second Treatise On Government. What does John Locke have to do with the Glorious Revolution? What impact did these events have on British North America? How does Nothern society differ from Southern society by the end of the 17th century? What were mercantilism and indentured servitude? Also note the early political independence of Virginia's elected assembly. Is there a system of class privilege developing on the Chesapeake? What are the internal and external sources of tension that contribute to Bacon's Rebellion? What led to the increase in importation of slaves after 1680?

6. Terra Nova: Middle and Southern Colonies II.

Read Nash, pp. 98–110 and John Smith's "The Starving Time." Compare Smith's description of the early Jamestown colony to the Nash description of life in the South betwen the 1680s and 1750s. What changed--this is the easy question--between these two time periods? Why has it changed? Who constitutes the members of the two Virginia communities? Is the South a single community by 1750? What other groups can you detect from the writings, and what are the attitudes towards those communities? What was life like as a slave? What were the forms of resistance and rebellion that occurred?

7. Eighteenth Century Colonial Culture.

Read Nash, pp. 111–123. The section on the Great Awakening is the first of many we'll study on reform movements. Look up "the Enlightenment" in an encyclopedia or some other text, and distinguish it from the Great Awakening. To some degree, don't the values at the heart of both movements conflict? Does the Jonathan Edwards sermon reflect your understanding of this historical period? How did the colonial governmental systems mirror and contrast with English political institutions and practices? Note the Albany Congress as a quixotic early attempt at colonial unity. Certainly we are still at a point of political decentralization in colonial development. Why? Could it have anything to do with the social divisions that still exist between and within the colonies? What ideas and forces lay at the heart of the thinking of Martin Luther and John Calvin? How did these ideas affect the lack of interest in exploration on the part of the British and French in the 16th century? What changed? Most of this reading is about the factors that divided colonial America. Make sure that your notebook reflects a careful list of these developments. Was slavery a benign influence on colonial life? What was the Stono Rebellion and why is it significant?

8. Imperial Zenith.

Read Nash, pp. 128–top of 141 [skip pp. 138–139]. This is the first time a major European conflict draws Americans into war; it won't be the last. Make a matrix chart listing the strengths and weaknesses of the competitors. Which of the characteristics seemed most important at the outset? Which turned out to be the most important? What do you think will be the main outcome of this great British military victory? Does the French surrender open up the possibility for concentrated dislike by the colonists of the British? And vice versa? In both cases, why? What were Grenville's actions at the war's end? Why did he feel he needed to act? How did European politics affect the settlement known as the Treaty of Paris (1763)? (By the way, this is the first Treaty of Paris; don't get it mixed up with the treaty of the same name that, ironically, settled England's capitulation to the colonies after the Revolution in 1783.) Look at the Proclamation of 1763 and the Stamp Act together. Can you explain why the Stamp Act generated so much hostility on the part of the American colonists? Why did Parliament initiate the legislation in the first place? Try to understand the mixed feelings the American colonists had about their relationship with the Britain. What were the advantages of the relationship? Disadvantages? Also, pay attention to some of the important names, terms, and concepts introduced, such as the Navigation Acts. How does this relate to John Locke's notion of property? Try to understand how the British thought they were being reasonable in governing by virtual representation.

9. Mounting Tensions.

Read Nash, pp. 141–149. Be sure you understand the essential data—the who, what, where, and when—about the controversial legislation so you can frame an analysis—the how, why, and so what-of what happened between Britain and her colonies across the Atlantic; for best results, use a matrix chart to keep track of the major issues and events of the period: the Quartering Act, the Boston Massacre, the Tea Act, the Gaspee Commission, the Boston Tea Party, the Coercive (or Intolerable) Acts, and the Québec Act. From the perspective of the colonists, there was something dramatically different about the Townshend Acts from previous Crown action. Explain. What institutions are at stake, from the colonists' viewpoint? Interesting question: if you were in charge of imperial policy in the 1760s, what would you have done differently to prevent the American Revolution? Would the colonists have accepted your policy? Would the English?

10. Period Test #1.

Covering all the material studied from the beginning of the term. The most basic skill you'll acquire is to learn what is important enough to study, so don't ask me what's going to be on the test. Instead, study everything you think is important. Read "Answering Historical Identification Questions" and "Writing Essays on History Tests" before you begin studying. The night before the test, I will be available in Memorial House from 9:00 to 9:30 P.M. to answer any questions you may have. You may bring an unmarked paperback dictionary into this and all other exams in the course, but you may not share it with anyone else.

11. Philadelphia Freedom.

Read Nash, pp. 154–157. Also read the Declaration of Independence. How did the war go in its early stages? What were the basic strategies of each side? What factors helped/hindered each side? Pay attention to the mismatching of British military power and British political wisdom. Are you surprised that it took so long for the Declaration to be issued? What are the two parts of the Declaration? We'll have discussed the motives of the founders by this point, but analyze the words here. Is this essentially a political or an economic document? Note the tone and substance of Trumbull's paintings accompanying the text. Why were loyalist sentiments stronger in the South? Prepare for a possible debate on this resolution: The British colonial policy from 1763 to 1775 was unreasonable, repressive, and seems almost to have been designed to unify the colonists in revolt.

12. Lexington Green I: Two Mysteries.

Read Bennett, pp. 1–21. Here we pause to examine this one event in considerable depth, not because it was so important but because from it we can learn important things about how historians work. They are something like detectives: they research in primary materials, test for plausibility, and record what seems to them the truth, absolving and charging as they think credible. You do the same in reading this book: be like a detective. What did happen on Lexington Green? What happened in Watts? Remember: as an historian, your responsibility is to tell what happened.

13. Lexington Green II: Historiography.

Read Bennett, pp. 22–33. Notice the wide range of views. Historiography is the study of what has been written about history. Its first law is found in the Course Expectations document. What does Turner mean? Relate your answer to these readings. A matrix chart highlighting the renditions presented by each historian will be helpful.

14. Lexington Green III: Interpretation of Data.

Read Bennett, pp. 46–56. Notice the differing ways in which history can be presented. Which do you find the most pleasant? The most believable? The most useful? Don't just rush through the assignment; study the writings to see which has truth in them. How does Plato's allegory of the cave help us deal with the dilemma of the historian? Comparative historians: see #21 below, and volunteer before we begin this class.

15. Winning Independence.

Read Nash, pp. 157–169. The British Empire represented the most powerful military force the world had seen until that point in time; how, then, was a ragtag organization of colonial militiamen eventually able to claim victory at the Treaty of Paris in 1783? What do you think of Washington's leadership during the fighting? How competent was the Continental Congress? How could the British have quelled the rebellion after 1775? What was the significance of the alliance with the French and what were France's motives? Can you identify turning points in the Revolution? Can you find more examples of the mismatch between military might and political wisdom? Keep track of how each side was faring in different regions. Know the Battles of Lexington (1775), Trenton (1776), Saratoga (1777), and Yorktown (1781). Ultimately, why were the Americans successful?

16. Paper #1 Due.

Topic to be announced.

17. You Say You Want A Revolution?

Read Nash, pp. 169–178. Why does the author call the American Revolution a Civil War? Do you agree? Who were loyalists, and why? What was the role of African Americans in the war? What was the war like for civilians? How does the image above compare to the descriptions of the war from the text?

18. Interpretation: Revolution or Revolt?

Read Nash, pp. 178–186. We'll break down this period in American history with some attention to the historiographical context. What were the basic beliefs of Republican ideology? How were they translated into practice in these new governments? Where were the contradictions in Republican ideology and practical reality in the new nation? Based on Abigail Adams's letter to her husband John Adams, what was the role of women in Revolutionary America?

19. The Critical Period.

Read Nash, pp. 195–top of 208 [skip pp. 204–205]. You may disagree with me over the history of the period, so do the reading especially well. What was the nature of the government during the Revolution? Why, after the galvanizing effort of fighting these heroic battles on the field of war, was it so difficult for the country to unite politically after the fighting stopped? What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation? What specific quarrels cropped up among the colonies? What was the solution? Were these political or economic arguments—and what social divisions did they reflect? Was the Confederation government compatible with the goals of the 1776 patriots? Compare the content of the Declaration with the characteristics of the Articles. What did the Confederation do well? What did it do poorly? Would you have liked to live under the Confederation? Why or why not? Think carefully. Make a list of the key issues that the colonies had to deal with in the aftermath of the Revolution. What were the events leading up to Shays' Rebellion? Why were the farmers unhappy? Should they have rebelled? Or did they go too far? List the major individuals of the Constitutional Convention. Why was this

20. Constitution I: The Legislative Branch.

Read Nash, pp. 208–210. and the Preamble and Article I of The U.S. Constitution. Where does the Preamble base the power of the Constitution? How is this different from the Articles of Confederation? Note the powers of Congress; what surprises you? According to Article I, how democratic is the legislative branch in 1787? (Hint: who is elected directly by the people and who is not?) Can you tell which provisions were the result of consensus and which were due to compromise? What were some of the compromises necessary to make the Constitution possible? Look over Section 8 of Article I. What provisions appear to be most open to differing interpretations? Why are the different possibilities for interpretation significant? What has been the effect of the two amendments? Locate the Connecticut Compromise (also called "the Great Compromise"), the 3/5 Compromise, and the 1808 Compromise in the text.

21. Constitution II: The Executive and Judicial Branches.

Read Articles II & III. What branches of the government do Articles II and III set up? Make a list of the Powers of the President. How are the offices of both branches filled? Does this seem to be very democratic? Think over Articles I, II, and III: how much control do 'the people' have over the national government? Why do you think it is framed this way? What checks and balances can you find? What separate powers? Does anything in here remind you of the British imperial policy of 1763–1775? Why is treason the only crime specifically detailed in the Constitution? [If you can locate Richard II's very different treason statute, adopted by Parliament in 1397, you get a 10/10 quiz grade. No other treason law will do.] Were the Founding Fathers conservative or radical? What do you mean by those terms? Look up the word reactionary in a dictionary before coming to class. Was the adoption of the Constitution a rejection of the principles of 1776?

22. Constitution III: Limited Government.

Read Articles IV–VII and the Bill of Rights (Amendments I–X) and skim the remaining amendments. What oversight of the Founding Fathers did the XIIth Amendment seek to cure? What separate powers does the President enjoy? How does the Constitution cope with the resignation of a President? Of a Vice-President? Find out how these things were used in the case of Nixon and Agnew, Ford, and Rockefeller. Did any problems arise? What had been the system before the XXVth Amendment? Many people in 1787 thought a bill of rights unnecessary; why? Many citizens have no idea of the contents of Amendments I–VIII, and we are a less democratic people as a result, so take advantage of this chance to learn them.

23. Constitution IV: Ratification.

Read Nash, pp. 210–215 and Federalist #10. Who were the Federalists? Who were the anti-Federalists? What were the anti-Federalists worried about? Have their fears come true? In your notebook define the following terms as you read Federalist #10: democracy, republic, faction. In class, we will consider this topic: The Constitution was designed to protect a small minority of rich Americans. It was drafted by representatives of the rich, and ratified by forces in the states loyal to the rich.

24. The Federalist Era.

Read Nash, pp. 220–226 and 232–235. Can you explain why President Washington appointed such disparate political figures as Hamilton and Jefferson to the same Cabinet? Were Hamilton's proposals economically sound? Were they constitutionally sound? Were they nationalistic? Keep in mind the fact that the Bank debate was taking place within the most rarefied levels of government. It symbolized, on the other hand, some basic differences in attitudes about "the people" and different views of whether the national government ought to be acting directly on the people to influence their affairs. Are there sectional interests involved here? How does Washington's response to the Whiskey Rebellion differ from the central government's response to Shays' Rebellion in 1786? What was the most important political consequence of Hamilton's economic program? How did Adams cope with it? What was the philosophy underlying Adams' foreign policy? Why did the opposition disagree? Did Adams treat the opposition constitutionally? Did he treat it even wisely? Why is the Election of 1800 sometimes referred to as a miracle? Make a list of the early national leaders and their contributions to the new nation in your notebook. Why was George Washington a good choice as the nation's first president? Why were Hamilton's programs so controversial? Would you have supported Hamilton? What were Jefferson's concerns about Hamilton's new programs? Would you consider Washington or Hamilton the true 'father' of our nation? What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? Were they constitutional? What did the VA and KY resolutions argue regarding the right to determining the Constitutionality of federal laws?

25. Hamilton vs. Jefferson.

All students prepare to debate this resolution: If I were President Washington in the 1790s, I'd have followed the advice I was getting from Jefferson. Keep in mind the likely unhappy consequences of your advice. I will play Washington in class, so be prepared to defend your choice. Remember the details of this theme for the rest of the year, because it is one that will recur repeatedly.

26. The Sage of Monticello in Office.

Read Nash, pp. 236–244. Why is it called the "Revolution of 1800"? What actions do the Jeffersonians take once they are in office? Based on the document, how much did the leaders know about what the Louisiana Territory was like? Was this a constitutional action? What was the Embargo Act, and why did Jefferson establish it? How were America's Neutral Rights being violated? What does this say about America as a new country? How did Jefferson as President cope with the legacies of Hamilton's economic program? How did he cope with the legacies of Adams' foreign policy? In each case, was he contradicting his own pre-1800 philosophy? Can we learn from his performance anything about more recent presidents? What of the following is more ironic: (a) Jefferson acting more like a Federalist than a Republican through much of his presidency, or (b) the most powerful branch of government from 1800–1828 turning out to be the judiciary! Pay attention to the evidence on both sides of this little debate in this assignment and the next. Is John Marshall trying to move the country forward on Hamilton's terms? Be sure you understand the emergence of the principle of judicial review. Think beyond the political/philosophical reasons for acquiring Louisiana. What were the practical reasons? What were Jefferson's views toward the Native Americans?

27. The Marshall Court.

You will have a short research assignment to prepare a summary of one of the following Supreme Court cases: Marbury v. Madison, Fletcher v. Peck, Dartmouth v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden. Be sure you understand what the case was about and what its broader impact on the country was so that you can teach it to your classmates.

28. The War of 1812.

Read Nash, pp. 267 (bottom)–top of 271. Prepare a matrix chart listing the English and French actions, 1807–1812, and the American responses to them. For extra credit be prepared to dispute the analysis that Madison was a dupe, and instead show that his policy was the prudent one. And remember that the U.S. went to war three times in the twentieth century over "freedom of the seas," so don't think that this is ancient history and of no relevance. Why is the War of 1812 called "the second war for American independence"? How do sectional interests control the debate on the wisdom of intervention? Here are some terms/names that you should know well: impressment, neutrality, nationalism, Embargo Act, Tecumseh, Jackson, and the Hartford Convention. The events of the war are less crucial than the political/international consequences that flowed from it. What was the Monroe Doctrine? Be sure you have a firm understanding of all its components.

29. Paper #2 Due.

Topic to be announced.

30. The New Nationalism: Era of Good Feelings?

Read Nash, pp. 271–278 and 282–289. Compare Hamilton's programs of the 1790s with the Madison program of 1815–1817, and then with Henry Clay's "American System" of the 1820s and 1830s. Get the data. Did the Republicans adopt the old Hamiltonian policies? These were the "good old days" when government stayed out of business and the "free market" was allowed to do its thing. Right? Or is the government deeply involved in the economic growth of this period? Note John Marshall's role, again. What caused the collapse of the Federalist-Jeffersonian system? What promoted economic development in the 1820's and 1830's? Do you believe that the frontier experience made America unique? What's the theme of this reading?

31. Period Test #2.

Covering specifically any and all material covered since class #10—the last period test—and at least generally all the material since the beginning of the term. There will be no essay on this test, but see #35, below.

32. Slavery And The Southern Economy.

Read Nash, pp. 311–319. What was the connection between slavery, cotton, domestic markets, and international markets? Think about what ways the South was 'dependent' on slavery with regards to economic, political, and cultural considerations.

Cotton and Commercial Growth

33. The Age of Jackson I: The New Party Politics.

Read Nash, pp. 344–351. In what ways was Andrew Jackson a product of his time period? To what degree did he shape the Executive Office? National politics? What was Jackson's 'Indian Policy'? Was it Constitutional? If not, how could he get away with it? Make a matrix chart of the following events: election of 1824, the Tariff of Abominations, the Eaton scandal, and Marshall's Cherokee decisions.

34. The Age of Jackson II: B.U.S. and Other Crises.

Read Nash, pp. 351–355. Continue the matrix chart on the Jackson Era: the Tariff of 1832, Texas Revolution, Whig Party, and the Panic of 1837. Study the chart on page 354, be sure to know the differences between the Democrats and the Whigs. Be sure you can articulate the perspectives on both sides of the following confrontations: (a) Calhoun vs. Jackson on state nullification; (b) Webster vs. Hayne on the nature of the Union; and (c) Jackson vs. Biddle on the Bank of the U.S. How much was Jackson to blame for the depression of 1837?

35. Paper #3 Due.

Topic to be announced.

36. Early 19th Century Reform Movements.

Read Nash, pp. 341–343 and 359–372 [skip pp. 362–363]. Connect colonial Puritanism to the reform ideas of this period. What was the Second Great Awakening? Who were the Trancendentalists? What did they want to reform (in other words what did they believe was wrong with America)? Which utopian movement would you most likely have supported, and why? What was temperance? How does the cartoon above suggest a racial aspect to the temperance movement? Can you link the urge for reforming American society and the notion of a 'city upon a hill'? Which of these reforms would you have supported? Rejected? Do a matrix chart of the five or six most important movements. Which was the most important of them all?

37. Dixie.

Read Nash, pp. 319–331 [skip pp. 328–329]. It will be difficult from reading this chapter, but make sure you understand what motivated the slaveholders to act as they did. They were Americans just like you; if you can't empathize with their beliefs, you can't understand why they fought and died for Southern independence. Of course, do not overlook the brutality of slavery, or the strength of the people who were slaves and yet survived the horror. How did Southerners justify slavery? Why do you think they felt the need to do so? How did they justify slavery? What seems to be the foundation of their argument? What was the daily rhythm of slavery? What was the rhythm of a slave's lifetime? What areas of their lives were slaves able to control? How did slaves resist slavery? In what ways can this be seen as a way of exerting a measure of ontrol over their lives? How 'free' was black freedom? What challenges did free black communities face before the Civil War? Why is religion so important to African-Americans, both free and slave?

38. Manifest Destiny.

Read Nash, 376–385 and study the map on p. 380. If you need to, look up the words "manifest" and "destiny." On balance, did the frontier experience of America make her more democratic or more imperialistic? What does the Monroe Doctrine have to do with Manifest Destiny? How much did slavery contribute to American expansionism? Was Polk honest with the American people? What were the motivations behind this movement? Why were there Americans in the Texas territory? Were they justified in revolting from Mexico? What was the controversy surrounding the annexation of Texas? Who started the Mexican War? What did the US gain from this war? Why does John O'Sullivan see America as a "great nation of futurity"?

39. Sectional Crisis.

Read Nash, pp. 407–420. You must know the wwww of the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and be able to draw conclusions about them all. (Hint: smart students will employ the matrix chart to its natural advantage here!) What was the problem? Be ready to explain popular sovereignty. Who were the Republicans? The Know-Nothings? How are racial and ethnic attitudes shaping the political landscape of America in the mid-1800s? In class you'll be given a lecture on the political pressures leading to secession.

40. The Road to Fort Sumter.

Read Nash, pp. 420–433. Get the data on: the Dred Scott case, the Lincoln/Douglas debates, the Freeport Doctrine, John Brown, Brooks vs. Sumner, and the election of 1860. Would you have joined Brown? Would you have supported the Crittenden Compromise if you were Lincoln? Would you have supported secession if you were a Southerner? Look ahead to the special projects for Assignments #44, 46, and 47. Each student will have to do a report, so if you see one you really like, you should volunteer quickly.

41. Research Project Organization.

42. Irrepressible?

Even numbers read Freehling, "The Civil War as a Crisis in American Political Theory"; odds read Sproat, "The Causes of the Civil War." Be sure you can teach the others what your reading was about. Both are very subtle, so don't make quick judgments. You must be able not only to define and explain the theme of the text you read, but also to back up your analysis with evidence taken from one or more of the documents. Look ahead to the special projects for Assignments #44, 46, and 47. Each student will have to do a report, so if you see one you really like, you should volunteer quickly.

43. The Civil War I: The War Between the States.

Read Nash, pp. 436–448. Make a list of the strengths and weaknesses of the two sides as they faced off. Was the Confederacy really a nation? Rate Union generals vs. Confederate generals in strategic concepts, implementation of resources, and tactical competence. Was the war in any way a good thing? What was the goal of U.S. diplomacy? Of C.S. diplomacy? How did each try to achieve its goals? Answer the same for politics and economics. Which of the two sides was better led?

44. The Civil War II: Military History.

Here the military history buffs among you get a chance to strut your stuff and your ability to coöperate will be put to the test. As assigned, teams of two students will work together and prepare a three-minute presentation, wwww/whsw, complete with maps done on the chalkboard, of the battles listed below. Teams will decide all questions of responsibilities.
Antietam: ________________ and ________________
Chancellorsville: ________________ and ________________
Gettysburg: ________________ and ________________
Vicksburg: ________________ and ________________
Wilderness/Spotsylvania: ________________ and ________________

45. The Civil War III: Politics, North and South.

Read Nash, pp. 449–464 [skip pp. 456–457]. How did each side organize itself internally for the war? What political and economic problems did each government face, and how did each try to cope? Which side was better led? Was Lincoln's primary motivation to issue the Emancipation Proclamation moral or political? How did the tactics of the North change during the war? What were Sherman's and Grant's particular talents? What did the North win? What did the South lose? What were the biggest challenges facing the North at the end of the war? The South?

46. Reconstruction I.

Read Nash, pp. 466–478 [skip pp. 474–475]. Make a list of the problems the Union faced as the war came to an end with regards to reforming the nation. Which ones seem most difficult to overcome? How did the Radical Republicans, moderate Republicans, and Johnson differ in their views of reconstructing the Union? What were the premises, details, and results of each plan? Given the problems on your list which do you think has the best plan? What was the crisis between President Johnson and Congress? How well did the checks and balances system work? Four-minute oral report on the impeachment of 1868 by ________________. (See Randall and Donald, Civil War and Reconstruction, in the Mellon Library.)

47. Reconstruction II.

Read Henry F. Bedford, "Reconstruction: The Nation's Unfinished Business." What does Bedford mean by "unfinished business"? What is the theme of each of the documents? Four-minute oral report by ________________ and ________________ , comparing the Radical attempts and the Southern attempts to fit the freedmen into society.

48. Freedmen I.

Read TBA and Packard, Fires of God, pp. 219–242 u. Some of the reading is review. Don't skip it, but pay attention to how the various political events affected the blacks. Learn precisely what is meant by redeemer, Mississippi Plan, Jim Crow, Atlanta Compromise, crop-lien, and sharecropper. Study the definitions given on page 229 of the Packard text, and think about how the ideas of Washington, Trotter, the Renaissance, and others fit into one or another of the categories.

49. Freedmen II.

Evens read I.A. Newby, "The Plight of the Negro After Reconstruction, 1877–1910" plus documents 24.1 and 24.6 and three other documents of your choice. Be prepared to give in fewer than fifteen words each the themes of the article and of the documents you read, and show how all those themes are related to each other. Odds read Degler, "Dawn Without Noon," pp. 228–257. In both assignments, find connections between the attitudes expressed people after the war and those expressed by the pro- and the anti-slavery people before the war. Then decide if you can still hear the same arguments today.

50. Period Test #3.

This exam, given on the last day before holiday break, will cover all the material studied since the last period test, which was in the fall term, and will reach back beyond that generally. Take this test seriously; vacation will not come any sooner!

Write an empirical essay based on your understanding of the Reconstruction era on the topic assigned to your number, as follows:
    1) what the white Southerners wanted from Reconstruction;
    2) what the Radical Republicans wanted from Reconstruction;
    3) what African-Americans wanted from Reconstruction;
    4) what Reconstruction actually achieved, no matter what those three groups wanted.

51. Geography: From Sea to Shining Sea

This assignment will be due on the day back from the holiday break. On the map of the U.S. to be distributed, locate and label the ten most important rivers, ten most important other waterways (count the five Great Lakes as only one here), five most important mountain ranges, and five obvious climactic divisions, as of today. Mark the names of the states in the Union as of 1850, identifying the slave states and the free states. Use the atlas at the reserve desk for the information, but look things up yourself and don't pester the librarian. (You should be able to find all the resources you will need in your hometown public library, so don't feel you have to put this off until you return.)